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Selected Bibliography on Comparative Philosophy

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. Abe, Masao. 1985. Zen and Western Thought. London: Macmillan.

  2. Allen, Douglas, ed. 1997. Culture and Self: Philosophical and Religious Perspectives, East and West. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

  3. Allinson, Robert E. 2001. "The Myth of Comparative Philosophy or the Comparative Philosophy Malgré Lui." In Two Roads to Wisdom? Chinese and Analytic Philosophical Traditions, edited by Mou, Bo, 269-291. La Salle, IL: Open Curt.

  4. Ames, Roger T., and Callicott, J. Baird, eds. 1989. Nature in Asian Traditions of Thought: Essays in Environmental Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  5. Ames, Roger T., and Dissanayake, Wimal, eds. 1996. Self and Deception: A Cross Cultural Perspective. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  6. Ames, Roger T., Kasulis, Thomas, and Dissanayake, Wimal, eds. 1992. Self as Body in Asian Theory and Practice. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  7. ———, eds. 1998. Self as Image in Asian Theory and Practice. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  8. Bahm, Archie John. 1977. Comparative Philosophy: Western, Indian and Chinese Philosophies Compared. Albuquerque: Universal Publications.

    Second revised edition 1995.

    Contents: 1. Introduction: What is Comparative Philosophy?; 2. Standards for Comparative Philosophy; 3. Eastern and Western Philosophies Compared; 4. Truth, Sataya, Cheng; 5. Good, Ananda, Chung; 6. Three Zeros; 7. Comparative Philosophy and World Philosophy.

  9. Balslev, Anindita N. 1997. "Philosophy and Cross-Cultural Conversation: Some Comments on the project of Comparative Philosophy." Metaphilosophy no. 28:359-370.

  10. Benesch, Walter. 1993. "The Euclidean Egg, the Three Legged Chinese Chicken." Journal of Chinese philosophy no. 20:109-131.

  11. ———. 1997. An Introduction to Comparative Philosophy. A Travel Guide to Philosophical Space. London: Macmillan.

  12. Bhattacharyya, Kalidas. 1958. "Classical Philosophies of India and the West." Philosophy East and West no. 8:17-36.

  13. Bilimoria, Purushottama, and Hemmingsen, Michael, eds. 2016. Comparative Philosophy and J.L. Shaw. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

  14. Blocker, Gene H. 1999. World Philosophy: An East-West Comparative Introduction to Philosophy. New York: Prentice Hall.

    Contents: Preface VII-XII; 1. Introduction: What is Philosophy? 1; 2 Logic and Language 42; 3. Epistemology, or Theory of Knowledge 78; 4. Metaphysics 105; 5. Ethics 159; 6. Social and Political Philosophy 201; Bibliography 232; Glossary 235; Timelines 244-246.

  15. Bonevac, Daniel, and Phillips, Stephen. 1993. Understanding Non-Western Philosophy. Introductory Readings. Mountain View: Mayfield.

  16. Botz-Bornstein, Thorsten. 2006. "Ethnophilosophy, Comparative Philosophy, Pragmatism: Toward a Philosophy of Ethnoscapes." Philosophy East and West no. 56:153-171.

  17. Burik, Steven. 2009. The End of Comparative Philosophy and the Task of Comparative Thinking. Heidegger, Derrida, and Daoism. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  18. Burr, John R., and Burr, Charlotte A., eds. 1993. World Philosophy: A Contemporary Bibliography. London: Greenwood Press.

    Cover the period 1976-1992; only includes books and monographs.

  19. Burtt, Edwin A. 1955. "What Can Western Philosophy Learn from India?" Philosophy East and West no. 5:195-210.

  20. Chakrabarti, Arindam, and Weber, Ralph, eds. 2016. Comparative Philosophy without Borders. New York: Routledge.

  21. Chi, Richard S.Y. 1976. "A Semantic Study of Propositions, East and West." Philosophy East and West no. 26:211-223.

    "This paper gives a classification of propositions, based on an extension of Post's theory of elementary propositions. The new theory is no longer limited to elementary propositions, but is applicable to many kinds: elementary, quantified, classes, relations, etc. The new theory is defined by an ordered quadruple, consisting of a set of 'arguments,' a set of 'identifiers,' a set of 'values' and a process called 'tabulation.' The result gives a 'logical lattice' to replace the traditional 'logical square.' It covers many systems, East and West, of Aristotle, Dignaga, Uddyotakara, Gergonne, Hamilton, Hilbert, McColl, Peano, Russell, Sheffer, Wittgenstein, Lukasiewicz and Carnap."

  22. Clarke, J.J. 1997. Oriental Enlightenment: The Encounter Between Asian and Western Thought. New York: Routledge.

  23. Connolly, Tim. 2015. Doing Philosophy Comparatively. New York: Bloomsbury.

  24. Cooper, David E. 2002. World Philosophies: A Historical Introduction. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Second revised edition.

  25. Creller, Aaron B. 2018. Making Space for Knowing: A Capacious Approach to Comparative Epistemology. Lanham: Lexington Books.

  26. Dallmayr, Fred. 1996. Beyond Orientalism: Essays on Cross-Cultural Encounter. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  27. Daye, Douglas Dunsmore. 1976. "Language and the Languages of East-West Philosophy: An Introduction." Philosophy East and West no. 26:113-115.

  28. Deng, Xize. 2010. "Problem and Method: The Possibility of Comparative Study—Using “Lun Liujia Yaozhi” as an Example." Frontiers of hilosophy in China no. 5:575-600.

  29. Deutsch, Eliot, ed. 1991. Culture and Modernity: East-West Philosophics Perspectives. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

  30. ———. 1997. Introduction to World Philosophies. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

  31. Deutsch, Eliot, and Bontekoe, Ron, eds. 1997. A Companion to World Philosophies. Oxford: Blackwell.

    "The purpose of this work is to provide a sophisticated, one-volume companion to the study of select non-Western philosophical traditions. It has become increasingly evident to many teachers and students of philosophy as well as to general readers that philosophy is not the exclusive province of the West: that indeed other traditions have a depth and range comparable to Western thought and exhibit distinctive features, the knowledge of which can enrich philosophical understanding and creativity wherever it occurs. This volume wit strive at once to introduce some of the finest thinking within and about non-Western traditions to teachers, students and general readers, and to offer interpretations and insights relevant to the work of other scholars in the field." (from the Introduction, p. XII)

  32. Devaraja, N. K. 1967. "Philosophy and Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 17:51-59.

  33. Dilworth, David A. 1989. Philosophy in World Perspective: A Comparative Hermeneutic of the Major Theories. New Haven: Yale University Press.

  34. Fleming, Jesse. 2003. "Comparative Philosophy: Its Aims and Methods." Journal of Chinese philosophy no. 30:259-270.

  35. Franco, Eli, and Preisendanz, Karin, eds. 2007. Beyond Orientalism. The Work of Wilhelm Halbfass and its Impact on Indian and Cross-Cultural Studies. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

  36. Frisina, Warren G. 2016. "Thinking Through Hall and Ames: On the Art of Comparative Philosophy." Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy no. 15:563-574.

  37. Gangadean, Ashok K. 1980. "Comparative Ontology: Relative and Absolute Truth." Philosophy East and West no. 30:465-480.

  38. Garfield, Jay L., and Edelglass, William, eds. 2011. The Oxford Handbook of World Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press.

  39. Hackett, Stuart Cornelius. 1979. Oriental Philosophy: A Westerner’s Guide to Eastern Thought. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

  40. Halbfass, Wilhelm. 1985. "India and the Comparative Method." Philosophy East and West no. 35:3-15.

  41. ———. 1988. India and Europe: An Essay in Understanding. Albany: State University of New York Press.

    Translation of: Indien und Europa. Perspektiven ihrer geistigen Begegnung, Stuttgart: Schwabe, 1981.

  42. Kaipayil, Joseph. 1995. The Epistemology of Comparative Philosophy: A Critique with Reference to P. T. Raju's Views. Rome: Centre for Indian and Inter-Religious Studies.

  43. Kalmanson, Leah. 2017. "The Ritual Methods of Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 67:399-418.

  44. Koller, John M. 2018. Asian Philosophies. New York: Routledge.

    Seventh edition.

  45. Krishna, Daya. 1988. "Comparative Philosophy: What It Is and What It Ought to Be." In Interpreting Across Boundaries. New Essays in Comparative Philosophy, edited by Larson, Gerald James and Deutsch, Eliot, 71-83. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  46. Kupperman, Joel J. 2001. Classic Asian Philosophy. A Guide to the Essential Texts. New York: Oxford University Press.

  47. Kwee, Swan Liat. 1951. "Methods of Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 1:10-15.

  48. ———. 1953. Methods of Comparative Philosophy. Scheveningen - Leiden: Offsetdrkkerij Dorsman.

    Contents: Preface V-IX; Part One: The Meaning of Comparative Philosophy. 1: Introduction 3; 2. Analysis of the phenomenon 18; 3. A historical perspective 30; Part Two: The Meaning of Philosophy. 4. Phenomenology of philosophy 61; 5. The function of philosophy 68; 6. The contents of philosophy 84; 7. The systematics of philosophy 92; Part Three: The Methods of Comparative Philosophy. 8. A triangulation of methods 111; 9. The historical and sociological approach 120; 10. The anthropological and psychological approach 139; 11. The linguistic and logical approach 154; 12. The transcendental re-evaluative approach 171; Bibliography 187; Index 207-217.

    "The analysis of methods of comparative philosophy, originally intended to serve as a base for the design of a new program of applied philosophical studies in Indonesia, is presented here as a general survey of the phenomenon of comparative philosophy as such, without references to Indonesian thought. As a survey it strives after comprehensiveness rather than completeness. No such survey has been attempted yet. Those who are engaged in the study of comparative philosophy may have some knowledge of some of the other projects with analogous purposes, but a comprehensive and systematic treatment of comparative philosophy, covering the whole field of studies, is still lacking. The present study by no means pretends to fill up this gap completely. It does not attempt to give a detailed and accurate picture of the scene, but rather to indicate the main horizons. As in a usual triangulation some points of reference are marked off with some emphasis while inter mediate areas are left out of consideration. The only possible merit of such an undertaking lies in what has-not-yet-been-said rather than in what is actually propounded, It serves to stimulate to further, more systematic and more integral researches rather than to registrate objectively what has been achieved at the moment. It serves to link apparently disconnected projects and themes, and so to open unexpected vistas and to readjust and enlarge existent perspectives, When it succeeds to evoke some fertile criticism, to bring about more-effective co-ordination in the many contemporary projects of comparative philosophy, and to contribute to the growth of practical transcultural understanding, the author's main intentions have been amply rewarded.

    Because this work is itself a survey it is impracticable to add a summary to it. The three parts of which it is composed, respectively dealing with a systematic analysis of the phenomenon of comparative philosophy, asystematic analysis of the phenomenon of philosophy itself, and the current methods of comparative philosophy, constitute a systematic whole." (pp. VI-VIII)

    "This study is composed of three parts.

    The first part will be an analysis of the meaning of comparative philosophy. A first mapping of the phenomenon is carried out in three sections. Some of the most significant recent studies are mentioned in this chapter. A second chapter will be devoted to an analysis of the main problems. Then, the phenomenon is viewed in a historical perspective.

    The second part will contain an analysis of the meaning of philosophy itself. The phenomenon of philosophy being the formal object of study in comparative philosophy, a mapping of this phenomenon itself is indispensable for an adequate integration of the various fragmentary endeavours in comparative philosophy. On the base of a comprehensive phenomenology of philosophy the systematic study of comparative philosophy will be facilitated. The third and last part is a comprehensive survey of current methods of comparative philosophy. A triangulation of methods is an efficient means to reveal the actual character of comparative philosophy as a consistent discipline." (pp. 4-5)

  49. Lacertosa, Massimiliano. 2017. "For a philosophy of comparisons: the problems of comparative studies in relation with Daoism." Asian Philosophy no. 27:324-339.

  50. Larson, Gerald James, and Deutsch, Eliot, eds. 1988. Interpreting Across Boundaries. New Essays in Comparative Philosophy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  51. Levine, Michael. 2016. "Does Comparative Philosophy Have a Fusion Future?" Confluence no. 4:208-237.

  52. Li, Chenyang. 1999. The Tao Encounters the West: Explorations in Comparative Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press.

    Contents: Acknowledgments IX; Introduction 1; Chapter 1. Being: perspective versus substance 11; Chapter 2. Truth: Confucius and Heidegger 35; Chapter 3. Pragmatic versus semantic 63; Chapter 4. Ethics: Confucian Jen and Feminist Care 89; Chapter 5. Family: duty versus rights 115; Chapter 6. Religion: multiple participation versus exclusionism 139; Chapter 7. Justice: Confucian values and democratic values 163; Concluding remarks 191; Notes 193; Bibliography 217; Index 229.

    From the Introduction: "The book may be seen as a study of Chinese and Western versions Tao. "Tao", as the word is used in Chinese, is not limited to Taoism; in all major Chinese systems it refers to the right way (the Ways or cosmic order even though different schools have different interpretations.' Chinese philosophy, therefore, may be seen as studies of various aspects of the Tao. Neither Chinese nor Western philosophy is homogeneous. There are, however, certain philosophies and philosophers who have had a defining influence within their own cultures and traditions, and I believe that a comparative study of these philosophies and philosophers can be used to demonstrate different thought patterns of the two cultures. Such a study illuminates the Chinese harmony model of life, which serves as a cornerstone of my argument for the coexistence of Confucianism and democracy.

    This book serves a dual purpose. While each chapter contributes directly or indirectly to the main thesis, each also stands on its own as a comparative study of a specific dimension of Western and Chinese philosophical and ethico-religious traditions.

    Chapter 1, "Being: Perspective versus Substance," investigates the differences between Chinese ontology and Aristotelian ontology, which is the most influential in the West. Aristotle's view of being is a substance ontology, according to which the world is composed of various individual substances. The Chinese philosopher Zhuang Zi's ' ontology, which reflects on the background of Chinese thinking in general, is a perspective ontology. According to this ontology, the being or identity of an entity is always contextually situated and perspective-dependent. These ontological differences occur at a fundamental level and thus underlie many other philosophical positions that distinguish Chinese from Western views. Communication and mutual understanding can be enhanced with a clear understanding of these differences. For example, the Chinese "contextual perspective" ontology has profound implications for people's attitudes toward many other significant aspects of life, including truth, morality, and religious practice. Because of the significance of Chinese ontology for Chinese philosophy in general, this first chapter not only provides the basis for chapter 2, on truth, it also has direct relevance to chapters 4 and 5 as the foundation of the Confucian understanding of `personhood."

    Chapter 2, "Truth: Confucius and Heidegger," investigates various concepts of truth, which is a central value in the West and in China. In the West, truth is usually understood semantically; it is a relation between language and reality. The Chinese understand it primarily as a matter of being a good person, as a way of life; being true is the way to realize one's potential for becoming fully human. Different understandings of truth in Western and Chinese philosophies affect value judgments in significant ways. Heidegger is chosen here not because he represents a typical Western understanding of truth (he does not), but because he presents a root metaphor of truth that is shared by both the Chinese and the Westerner. Through exploring Heidegger's view on truth, this chapter demonstrates how the Chinese and Western notions of truth, although sharing the same common metaphor of "unveiling (aletheia)," lead in different directions. This understanding of Chinese truth as a way of life and self-realization provides further ground for discussion in chapters 4, 5. 6, and 7." (pp. 2-3)

  53. ———. 2016. "Comparative Philosophy and Cultural Patterns." Dao. A Journal of Comparative Philosophy no. 15:533-546.

    Abstract: "As a genus of philosophy, comparative philosophy serves various important purposes. It helps people understand various philosophies and it helps philosophers develop new ideas and solve problems. In this essay, I first clarify the meaning of “comparative philosophy” and its main purposes, arguing that an important purpose of comparative philosophy is to help us understand cultural patterns. This function makes comparative philosophy even more significant in today’s globalized world."

  54. Liang, Shuming. 2001. "The Cultures of the East and West and Their Philosophies." Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy no. 1:107-127.

  55. Libbrecht, Ulrich. 2006. Whithin the Four Seas... Introduction to Comparative Philosophy. Leuven: Peeters.

  56. Lin, Ma, and van Brakel, Jaap. 2016. Fundamentals of Comparative and Intercultural Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  57. ———. 2016. "On the Conditions of Possibility for Comparative and Intercultural Philosophy " Dao. A Journal of Comparative Philosophy no. 12:297-312.

    Abstract: "As a genus of philosophy, comparative philosophy serves various important purposes. It helps people understand various philosophies and it helps philosophers develop new ideas and solve problems. In this essay, I first clarify the meaning of “comparative philosophy” and its main purposes, arguing that an important purpose of comparative philosophy is to help us understand cultural patterns. This function makes comparative philosophy even more significant in today’s globalized world."

  58. ———. 2016. "A Theory of Interpretation for Comparative and Chinese Philosophy." Dao. A Journal of Comparative Philosophy no. 15:575-589.

    Abstract: "Why should interpretation of conceptual schemes and practices (forms of life) across traditions work at all? In this paper we present the following necessary conditions of possibility for interpretation in comparative and Chinese philosophy: the interpreter must presuppose that there are mutually recognizable human practices; the interpreter must presuppose that “the other” is, on the whole, sincere, consistent, and right; the interpreter must be committed to certain epistemic virtues. Some of these necessary conditions are consistent with the fact that interpretation is not thwarted by the “danger” of relativism or of incommensurability. Some other conditions are suggestive of reorientations of methodologies of comparative and Chinese philosophy."

  59. Loy, David. 1988. Nonduality: A Study in Comparative Philosophy. New Haven: Yale University Press.

    Reprint: Atlantic Highlands: Humanities Press, 1997.

  60. Malhotra, Ashok. 1980. "Introductory Remarks on the Symposium "The Problem of Truth"." Philosophy East and West no. 30:421-424.

    "This article offers a brief summary of the main points raised in the four papers read in the Symposium on "East-West perspectives on truth" which was organized by the society for Asian and comparative philosophy from December 27-28, 1978 in Washington, d c. The papers covered the Chinese, Japanese, Indian and comparative perspectives on truth. The Symposium revealed that the time had come when a dialogue between Eastern and Western philosophers was not only important but necessary. the Symposium achieved its aim of broadcasting this essential message."

  61. Marks, Joel, and Ames, Roger T. 1995. Emotions in Asian Thought: A Dialogue in Comparative Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  62. Masson-Oursel, Paul. 1926. Comparative Philosophy. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.

    Reprint: London: Routledge, 2000.

    Translated from the French edition: La philosophie Comparée, Paris: Alcan, 1923.

  63. ———. 1951. "True Philosophy is Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 1:6-9.

  64. Matilal, Bimal Krishna, and Shaw, Jaysankar Lal, eds. 1985. Analytical Philosophy in Comparative Perspective. Exploratory Essays in Current Theories and Classical Indian Theories of Meaning and Reference. Dordrecht: Reidel.

  65. McDermott, Charlene, ed. 1983. Comparative Philosophy. Selected Essays. Lanham: University Press of America.

  66. McEvilley, Thomas. 2002. The Shape of Ancient Thought: Comparative Studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies. New York: Allworth Press.

  67. Moeller, Hans-Georg. 2018. "On Comparative and Post-Comparative Philosophy." In Appreciating the Chinese Difference: Engaging Roger T. Ames on Methods, Issues, and Roles, edited by Behuniak, Jim, 31-45. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  68. Moore, Charles Alexander, ed. 1946. Philosophy - East and West. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  69. ———. 1951. "Some Problems of Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 1:67-70.

  70. ———. 1951. Essays in East-West Philosophy. An Attempt at World Philosophical Synthesis. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

    "The report of the Second East-West Philosophers' Conference, held at the University of Hawaii from June 20 to July 28, 1949."

  71. ———. 1952. "Keys to Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 2:76-78.

  72. ———, ed. 1962. Philosophy and Culture: East and West. East-West Philosophy in Practical Perspective. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

    Reprint 1968.

    East-West Philosophy in Practical Perspective. Proceedings of the conference, held at the University of Hawaii under its sponsorship during the summer of 1959.

    "The general theme of the conference was East-West philosophy in practical perspective, and the goal primarily was to achieve mutual understanding between the great cultures of East-and-West, and not to engage in critical analysis. Most of the emphasis was on the classical tradition rather than contemporary movements--especially Buddhism, Hinduism, Mohammedanism and Confucianism. Among the topics discussed were the relation of philosophical theories to practical affairs; natural science and technology in relation to cultural institutions and social practice; religion and spiritual values; ethics and social practice; legal, political and economic philosophy; conspectus of practical implications for world understanding and cooperation."

  73. Mou, Bo, ed. 2003. Comparative Approaches to Chinese Philosophy. Aldershot: Ashgate.

  74. Nakamura, Hajime. 1964. Ways of Thinking of Eastern Peoples. India, China, Tibet, Japan. Honolulu: East-West Center Press.

    Revised English translation edited by Philip P. Wiener (Original Japanese edition 1960).

  75. ———. 1975. Parallel Developments. A Comparative History of Ideas. New York: Harper & Row.

    Second edition with the title: A Comparative History of Ideas, New Delhi: Kegan Paul International, 1986.

  76. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. 1972. "Conditions for Meaningful Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 22:53-61.

  77. Netton, Ian Richard. 2006. Islam, Christianity and Tradition. A Comparative Exploration. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

  78. Neville, Robert Cummings. 2001. "Two Forms of Comparative Philosophy." Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy no. 1:1-13.

  79. Ng, On-cho, ed. 2008. The Imperative of Understanding: Chinese Philosophy, ComparativePhilosophy, and Onto-Hermeneutics—A Tribute Volume Dedicated to Professor Chung-ying Cheng. New York: Global Scholarly Publications.

  80. Nisbett, Richard E. 2003. The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently . . . and Why. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

  81. Oldmeadow, Harry. 2007. "The Comparative Study of Eastern and Western Metaphysics: A Perennialist Perspective." Sophia no. 46:49-64.

  82. Ouyang, Xiao. 2018. "Rethinking Comparative Philosophical Methodology: In Response to Weber's Criticism." Philosophy East and West no. 68:242-256.

  83. ———. 2018. "Rejoinder to Ralph Weber." Philosophy East and West no. 68:261-263.

  84. Panikkar, Raimundo. 1988. "What Is Comparative Philosophy Comparing?" In Interpreting Across Boundaries. New Essays in Comparative Philosophy, edited by Larson, Gerald James and Deutsch, Eliot, 116-136. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  85. Priest, Graham. 2003. "Where Is Philosophy at the Start of the Twenty-First Century?" Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society no. 103:85-99.

  86. Raju, Poolla Tirupati. 1947. "The Western and the Indian Philosophical Traditions." Philosophical Review no. 56:127-155.

    "This was the first important paper published by me on comparative philosophy in USA. in a way, it was the forerunner of my book, Introduction to comparative philosophy (University of Nebraska Press, 1962). for a quick bird's eye view of the two traditions, it will be very useful. it will be useful particularly for those who cannot find time enough to read my thicker books on comparative philosophy."

  87. ———. 1955. "Idealisms: Eastern and Western." Philosophy East and West no. 5:211-234.

    "This is a comparison of Western and Eastern (including the Chinese) idealistic thought in its growth. It gives in a short space a summary of the similarities and differences."

  88. ———. 1957. "Being, Existence, Reality, and Truth." Philosophy East and West no. 17:291-315.

    "This paper which attempted to clarify the meanings of the four words which are still being used confusingly in both the same and different senses. Their meanings coincide, but also differ; that is, there is overlapping both in meaning and usage. Incidentally, the paper brings in also the Indian meanings and usages, which also have similar difficulties. In their usage the ontological, the cosmological, the epistemological and logical, and even the artistic (imitative art) meanings are mixed up. The intent is to raise the question: to what or to which are all these meanings moored or to be moored?".

  89. ———. 1962. Introduction to Comparative Philosophy. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

    Reprint: Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass 1977.

    Contents: Preface V; General Introduction 3; 1. Western Philosophy and the Struggle for the Liberation of the Outward 13; 2. Chinese Philosophy and Human Mindfulness 93, 3. Indian Philosophy and Explication of Inwardness 169; 4. Comparisons and Reflections 249; Appendixes 337; Chronological Table 339; Glossary of Indian and Chinese Terms 352; Index 357.

  90. Raud, Rein. 2006. "Philosophies versus Philosophy: In Defense of a Flexible Definition." Philosophy East and West no. 56:618-625.

  91. Reding, Jean-Paul. 2004. Comparative Essays in Early Greek and Chinese Rational Thinking. Aldershot: Ashgate.

  92. Reyna, Ruth. 1984. Dictionary of Oriental Philosophy. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers.

  93. Rosán, Laurence J. 1952. "A Key to Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 2:56-65.

  94. ———. 1961. "Are Comparisons between the East and the West Fruitful for Comparative Philosophy?" Philosophy East and West no. 11:239-243.

  95. Said, Edward. 1978. Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books.

  96. Santangelo, Paolo. 1993. "Italian Studies on Far Eastern Thought in Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 43:573-581.

  97. Scharfstein, Ben-Ami. 1998. A Comparative History of World Philosophy. From the Upanishads to Kant. Albany: State University of New York Press.

    Contents: Preface XI; Acknowledgments XIII; Chapter 1. The three philosophical traditions 1; Chapter 2. The beginnings of metaphysical philosophy Uddalaka, Yajnavalkya, Heraclitus, Parmenides 55; Chapter 3. The beginnings of moral philosophy Confucius/Mencius, the Buddha, Socrates 79;

    Chapter 4. Early logical relativism, skepticism, and absolutism Mahavira, Chuang-tzu, Protagoras, Gorgias, Plato 113; Chapter 5. Early rational Synthesis Hsün-tzu, Aristotle 145; Chapter 6. Early varieties of atomism Democritus/Epicurus/Lucretius, "Gautama"' and Nameless Buddhists 171; Chapter 7. Hierarchical idealism Plotinus/Proclus, Bhartrhari 205; Chapter 8. Developed skepticism Sextus Empiricus, Nagarjuna, Jayarashi, Shriharsha 233; Chapter 9. Religio-philosophical synthesis U]dayana, C.hu Hsi, Avicenna, Mairnonides, Aquinas 275; Chapter 10. Logic-sensitized, methodological metaphysics Gangesha, Descartes, Leibniz 329; Chapter 11. Immanent-transcendent holism Shankara, Spinoza 367, Chapter 12. Perceptual analysis, realistic and idealistic Asanga/Vasuhandu, Locke, Berkeley, Hume 407; Chapter 13. Fideistic neo-skepticism Dignaga/Dhamakirti, Kant 467; Afterword 517; Notes 531; Bibliography 655; Note on the Author 659; Index 661.

    From the Preface: "Because I hope that newcomers to the history of philosophy will be among the readers of this hook, I have taken care to explain whatever I think they need to know. The book begins with the reasons for studying philosophy comparatively and with the difficulties raised by such study, and it ends with a view of philosophy that is personal but that rests on all of the preceding discussion The philosophers dealt with represent certain attitudes. schools. and traditions, but they are remembered most interestingly and accurately as individuals. So even though I have had to omit a great deal and make schematic summaries, I have in each instance tried to suggest the philosopher's style, density, and order of thought. In its later chapters the book tends to grow more difficult and elaborate, like the philosophies it deals with; but the early chapters prepare for the later ones. and, whatever the difficulty, I have always wittiest as simply and clearly as I can.

    To avoid making a long book forbiddingly longer, I have limited not only the number of philosophers dealt with but also the range of thought by which each of them is represented Plato. for example, is limited to his theory of Ideas and Kant (except in the later discussion) to his Critique of Pure Reason. In keeping with the needs of a particular comparison. I have sometimes drawn a broad sketch and sometimes entered into details. When it has seemed natural. I have shared my own views with the reader-there is no good reason to pretend that I am a neutral, disembodied voice. But however I judge each philosopher's thought, I have committed myself to expound it with a minimum of bias." (p. XI)

  98. ———. 2001. "How important is truth to epistemology and knowledge? Some answers from comparative philosophy." Social Epistemology: A Journal of Knowledge no. 15:275-283.

  99. Sheldon, Wilmon H. 1956. "What Can Western Philosophy Contribute to Eastern?" Philosophy East and West no. 5:291-304.

  100. Shen, Vincent. 2003. "Some Thoughts on Intercultural Philosophy and Chinese Philosophy." Journal of Chinese Philosophy no. 30:357-372.

  101. Siderits, Mark. 2017. "Comparison or Confluence In Philosophy?" In The Oxford Handbook of Indian Philosophy, edited by Ganeri, Jonardon, 75-92. New York: Oxford University Press.

  102. Smid, Robert W. 2009. Methodologies of Comparative Philosophy: the Pragmatist and Process Traditions. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  103. Smith, Huston. 1980. "Western and Comparative Perspectives on Truth." Philosophy East and West no. 30:425-437.

  104. Solomon, Robert C., and Higgins, Kathleen M., eds. 1995. World Philosophy: A Text with Readings. New York: McGraw Hill.

  105. ———, eds. 2003. From Africa to Zen. An Invitation to World Philosophy. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Second expanded edition (First edition 1993).

  106. Sprung, Mervyn, ed. 1978. The Question of Being. East-West Perspectives. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

    Each chapter in this book (except the first) originated at a symposium arranged by the philosophy department of Brock University, St. Catherines, Ontario.

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    1. The birth of philosophy 3; 2. The Universe: its origin and structure 11; 3. Human nature 35; 4. In search of the truth 63; 5. Tradition and modernity 87;

    Part 2. Primary sources.

    6. Indian tradition 107, 7. Chinese tradition 158; 8. Islamic tradition 233; Index 285; About the Author 293.

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Comparative Philosophy: Non-Western Logic and Ontology"

Index of the Section "Bibliographical Study Guides"