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Selected Bibliography on Comparative Philosophy


  1. "Directory of Comparative Philosophers." 1990. Philosophy East and West no. 40:73-97.

  2. "Directory of Comparative Philosophers. Part Ii." 1991. Philosophy East and West no. 41:537-556.

  3. Arrington, Robert L., ed. 1999. A Companion to the Philosophers. Oxford: Blackwell.

  4. Bahm, Archie John. 1977. Comparative Philosophy: Western, Indian and Chinese Philosophies Compared. Albuquerque: Universal Publications.

    Second revised edition 1995.

    Contents: 1. What is comparative philosophy?; 2. Standards for comparative philosophy; 3. Eastern and Western philosophies compared; 4. Truth, Sataya, Cheng; 5. Good, Ananda, Chung; 6. Three Zeros; 7. Comparative philosophy and world philosophy

  5. Bhattacharyya, Kalidas. 1958. "Classical Philosophies of India and the West." Philosophy East and West no. 8:17-36.

  6. Blocker, Gene H. 1999. World Philosophy. An East-West Comparative Introduction to Philosophy. New York: Prentice Hall.

    Contents: Preface VII; 1. Introduction: What is philosophy? 1; 2 Logic and language 42; 3. Epistemology, or theory of knowledge 78; 4. Metaphysics 105; 5. Ethics 159; 6. Social and political philosophy 201; Bibliography 232.

  7. Bochenski, Joseph. 1974. "Logic and Ontology." Philosophy East and West no. 25:275-292.

  8. Bonevac, Daniel, and Phillips, Stephen. 1993. Understanding Non-Western Philosophy. Introductory Readings. Mountain View: Mayfield Publishing Company.

  9. Burr, John R., and Burr, Charlotte A., eds. 1993. World Philosophy: A Contemporary Bibliography. London: Greenwood Press.

    Cover the period 1976-1992; only includes books and monographs.

  10. Burtt, Edwin A. 1955. "What Can Western Philosophy Learn from India?" Philosophy East and West no. 5:195-210.

  11. Carr, Brian, and Mahalingam, Indira, eds. 1997. Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy. London: Routledge.

  12. Chi, Richard S.Y. 1976. "A Semantic Study of Propositions, East and West." Philosophy East and West no. 26:211-223.

    "This paper gives a classification of propositions, based on an extension of Post's theory of elementary propositions. The new theory is no longer limited to elementary propositions, but is applicable to many kinds: elementary, quantified, classes, relations, etc. The new theory is defined by an ordered quadruple, consisting of a set of 'arguments,' a set of 'identifiers,' a set of 'values' and a process called 'tabulation.' The result gives a 'logical lattice' to replace the traditional 'logical square.' It covers many systems, East and West, of Aristotle, Dignaga, Uddyotakara, Gergonne, Hamilton, Hilbert, McColl, Peano, Russell, Sheffer, Wittgenstein, Łukasiewicz and Carnap."

  13. Daye, Douglas Dunsmore. 1976. "Language and the Languages of East-West Philosophy: An Introduction." Philosophy East and West no. 26 (2):113-115.

  14. Deutsch, Eliot, and Bontekoe, Ron, eds. 1997. A Companion to World Philosophies. Oxford: Blackwell.

    "The purpose of this work is to provide a sophisticated, one-volume companion to the study of select non-Western philosophical traditions. It has become increasingly evident to many teachers and students of philosophy as well as to general readers that philosophy is not the exclusive province of the West: that indeed other traditions have a depth and range comparable to Western thought and exhibit distinctive features, the knowledge of which can enrich philosophical understanding and creativity wherever it occurs. This volume wit strive at once to introduce some of the finest thinking within and about non-Western traditions to teachers, students and general readers, and to offer interpretations and insights relevant to the work of other scholars in the field." (from the Introduction, p. XII).

  15. Fleming, Jesse. 2003. "Comparative Philosophy: Its Aims and Methods." Journal of Chinese philosophy no. 30:259-270.

  16. Gangadean, Ashok K. 1980. "Comparative Ontology: Relative and Absolute Truth." Philosophy East and West no. 30 (4):465-480.

  17. Garfield, Jay L., and Edelglass, William, eds. 2011. The Oxford Handbook of World Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press.

  18. Gregor, Paul. 1991. "Reflections on the Usage of the Terms "Logic" and "Logical" in Comparative Philosophy." Journal of Chinese philosophy:73-87.

  19. Halbfass, Wilhelm. 1985. "India and the Comparative Method." Philosophy East and West no. 35 (1):3-15.

  20. Kwee, Swan Liat. 1951. "Methods of Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 1:10-15.

  21. ———. 1953. Methods of Comparative Philosophy. Scheveningen - Leiden: Offsetdrkkerij Dorsman.

    Contents: Preface V-IX; Part One: The Meaning of Comparative Philosophy. 1: Introduction 3; 2. Analysis of the phenomenon 18; 3. A historical perspective 30; Part Two: The Meaning of Philosophy. 4. Phenomenology of philosophy 61; 5. The function of philosophy 68; 6. The contents of philosophy 84; 7. The systematics of philosophy 92; Part Three: The Methods of Comparative Philosophy. 8. A triangulation of methods 111; 9. The historical and sociological approach 120; 10. The anthropological and psychological approach 139; 11. The linguistic and logical approach 154; 12. The transcendental re-evaluative approach 171; Bibliography 187; Index 207-217.

    "The analysis of methods of comparative philosophy, originally intended to serve as a base for the design of a new program of applied philosophical studies in Indonesia, is presented here as a general survey of the phenomenon of comparative philosophy as such, without references to Indonesian thought. As a survey it strives after comprehensiveness rather than completeness. No such survey has been attempted yet. Those who are engaged in the study of comparative philosophy may have some knowledge of some of the other projects with analogous purposes, but a comprehensive and systematic treatment of comparative philosophy, covering the whole field of studies, is still lacking. The present study by no means pretends to fill up this gap completely. It does not attempt to give a detailed and accurate picture of the scene, but rather to indicate the main horizons. As in a usual triangulation some points of reference are marked off with some emphasis while inter mediate areas are left out of consideration. The only possible merit of such an undertaking lies in what has-not-yet-been-said rather than in what is actually propounded, It serves to stimulate to further, more systematic and more integral researches rather than to registrate objectively what has been achieved at the moment. It serves to link apparently disconnected projects and themes, and so to open unexpected vistas and to readjust and enlarge existent perspectives, When it succeeds to evoke some fertile criticism, to bring about more-effective co-ordination in the many contemporary projects of comparative philosophy, and to contribute to the growth of practical transcultural understanding, the author's main intentions have been amply rewarded.

    Because this work is itself a survey it is impracticable to add a summary to it. The three parts of which it is composed, respectively dealing with a systematic analysis of the phenomenon of comparative philosophy, asystematic analysis of the phenomenon of philosophy itself, and the current methods of comparative philosophy, constitute a systematic whole." (pp. VI-VIII).

    "This study is composed of three parts.

    The first part will be an analysis of the meaning of comparative philosophy. A first mapping of the phenomenon is carried out in three sections. Some of the most significant recent studies are mentioned in this chapter. A second chapter will be devoted to an analysis of the main problems. Then, the phenomenon is viewed in a historical perspective.

    The second part will contain an analysis of the meaning of philosophy itself. The phenomenon of philosophy being the formal object of study in comparative philosophy, a mapping of this phenomenon itself is indispensable for an adequate integration of the various fragmentary endeavours in comparative philosophy. On the base of a comprehensive phenomenology of philosophy the systematic study of comparative philosophy will be facilitated. The third and last part is a comprehensive survey of current methods of comparative philosophy. A triangulation of methods is an efficient means to reveal the actual character of comparative philosophy as a consistent discipline." (pp. 4-5)

  22. ———. 1953. "Systematics and Synthesys." Philosophy East and West no. 3:101-116.

  23. Larson, Gerald James, and Deutsch, Eliot, eds. 1988. Interpreting across Boundaries. New Essays in Comparative Philosophy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  24. Leaman, Oliver. 1999. Key Concepts in Eastern Philosophy. London: Routledge.

  25. ———, ed. 2001. Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy. New York: Routledge.

  26. Li, Chenyang. 1999. The Tao Encounters the West. Explorations in Comparative Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press.

    Contents: Acknowledgments IX; Introduction 1; Chapter 1. Being: perspective versus substance 11; Chapter 2. Truth: Confucius and Heidegger 35; Chapter 3. Pragmatic versus semantic 63; Chapter 4. Ethics: Confucian Jen and Feminist Care 89; Chapter 5. Family: duty versus rights 115; Chapter 6. Religion: multiple participation versus exclusionism 139; Chapter 7. Justice: Confucian values and democratic values 163; Concluding remarks 191; Notes 193; Bibliography 217; Index 229.

    From the Introduction: "The book may be seen as a study of Chinese and Western versions Tao. "Tao", as the word is used in Chinese, is not limited to Taoism; in all major Chinese systems it refers to the right way (the Ways or cosmic order even though different schools have different interpretations.' Chinese philosophy, therefore, may be seen as studies of various aspects of the Tao. Neither Chinese nor Western philosophy is homogeneous. There are, however, certain philosophies and philosophers who have had a defining influence within their own cultures and traditions, and I believe that a comparative study of these philosophies and philosophers can be used to demonstrate different thought patterns of the two cultures. Such a study illuminates the Chinese harmony model of life, which serves as a cornerstone of my argument for the coexistence of Confucianism and democracy.

    This book serves a dual purpose. While each chapter contributes directly or indirectly to the main thesis, each also stands on its own as a comparative study of a specific dimension of Western and Chinese philosophical and ethico-religious traditions.

    Chapter 1, "Being: Perspective versus Substance," investigates the differences between Chinese ontology and Aristotelian ontology, which is the most influential in the West. Aristotle's view of being is a substance ontology, according to which the world is composed of various individual substances. The Chinese philosopher Zhuang Zi's ' ontology, which reflects on the background of Chinese thinking in general, is a perspective ontology. According to this ontology, the being or identity of an entity is always contextually situated and perspective-dependent. These ontological differences occur at a fundamental level and thus underlie many other philosophical positions that distinguish Chinese from Western views. Communication and mutual understanding can be enhanced with a clear understanding of these differences. For example, the Chinese "contextual perspective" ontology has profound implications for people's attitudes toward many other significant aspects of life, including truth, morality, and religious practice. Because of the significance of Chinese ontology for Chinese philosophy in general, this first chapter not only provides the basis for chapter 2, on truth, it also has direct relevance to chapters 4 and 5 as the foundation of the Confucian understanding of 'personhood."

    Chapter 2, "Truth: Confucius and Heidegger," investigates various concepts of truth, which is a central value in the West and in China. In the West, truth is usually understood semantically; it is a relation between language and reality. The Chinese understand it primarily as a matter of being a good person, as a way of life; being true is the way to realize one's potential for becoming fully human. Different understandings of truth in Western and Chinese philosophies affect value judgments in significant ways. Heidegger is chosen here not because he represents a typical Western understanding of truth (he does not), but because he presents a root metaphor of truth that is shared by both the Chinese and the Westerner. Through exploring Heidegger's view on truth, this chapter demonstrates how the Chinese and Western notions of truth, although sharing the same common metaphor of "unveiling (aletheia)," lead in different directions. This understanding of Chinese truth as a way of life and self-realization provides further ground for discussion in chapters 4, 5. 6, and 7." pp. 2-3

  27. Libbrecht, Ulrich. 2006. Whithin the Four Seas... Introduction to Comparative Philosophy. Leuven: Peeters.

  28. Loy, David. 1988. Nonduality: A Study in Comparative Philosophy. New Haven: Yale University Press.

    Reprinted Atlantic Highlands, Humanities Press, 1997.

  29. Malhotra, Ashok. 1980. "Introductory Remarks on the Symposium "the Problem of Truth"." Philosophy East and West no. 30 (4):421-424.

    "This article offers a brief summary of the main points raised in the four papers read in the Symposium on "East-West perspectives on truth" which was organized by the society for Asian and comparative philosophy from December 27-28, 1978 in Washington, d c. The papers covered the Chinese, Japanese, Indian and comparative perspectives on truth. The Symposium revealed that the time had come when a dialogue between Eastern and Western philosophers was not only important but necessary. the Symposium achieved its aim of broadcasting this essential message."

  30. Masson-Oursel, Paul. 1926. Comparative Philosophy. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.

    Reprinted London, Routledge, 2000.

    Translated from the French edition: La philosophie Comparée, Paris, Alcan, 1923.

  31. ———. 1951. "True Philosophy Is Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 1:6-9.

  32. McDermott, Charlene, ed. 1983. Comparative Philosophy. Selected Essays. Lanham: University Press of America.

    " Comparative philosophy. Selected essays deals with Eastern as well as Western philosophy and purports to introduce fundamental epistemological and metaphysical issues and concepts to the university undergraduate and to the cultivated layman. The reader's selections are culled from the writings of thinkers in the first rank in both traditions and are followed by a select bibliography plus a glossary of technical terms."

  33. Moore, Charles Alexander, ed. 1944. Philosophy - East and West. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Contains the results of the East-West philosophers' conference held at the University of Hawaii during the summer of 1939.

    Reprinted Freeport, Books for Libraries Press, 1970.

  34. ———. 1951. "Some Problems of Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 1:67-70.

  35. ———. 1951. Essays in East-West Philosophy. An Attempt at World Philosophical Synthesis. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

    "The report of the Second East-West Philosophers' Conference, held at the University of Hawaii from June 20 to July 28, 1949"

  36. ———. 1952. "Keys to Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 2:76-78.

  37. ———, ed. 1962. Philosophy and Culture: East and West. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

    Reprinted 1968.

    East-West Philosophy in Practical Perspective. Proceedings of the conference, held at the University of Hawaii under its sponsorship during the summer of 1959.

    "The general theme of the conference was East-West philosophy in practical perspective, and the goal primarily was to achieve mutual understanding between the great cultures of East-and-West, and not to engage in critical analysis. Most of the emphasis was on the classical tradition rather than contemporary movements--especially Buddhism, Hinduism, Mohammedanism and Confucianism. Among the topics discussed were the relation of philosophical theories to practical affairs; natural science and technology in relation to cultural institutions and social practice; religion and spiritual values; ethics and social practice; legal, political and economic philosophy; conspectus of practical implications for world understanding and cooperation."

  38. Nakamura, Hajime. 1964. Ways of Thinking of Eastern Peoples. India, China, Tibet, Japan. Honolulu: East-West Center Press.

    Revised English translation edited by Philip P. Wiener (Original edition 1960).

  39. ———. 1975. Parallel Developments: A Comparative History of Ideas. New York: Harper & Row.

    Second edition with the title: A comparative history of ideas, New Delhi, Kegan Paul International, 1986.

  40. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. 1972. "Conditions for Meaningful Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 22:53-61.

  41. Neville, Robert Cummings, ed. 2001. Religious Truth. A Volume in the Comparative Religious Ideas Project. Albany: State of New York University Press.

  42. Raju, Poolla Tirupati. 1947. "The Western and the Indian Philosophical Traditions." Philosophical Review no. 56:127-155.

    "This was the first important paper published by me on comparative philosophy in USA. in a way, it was the forerunner of my book, Introduction to comparative philosophy (University of Nebraska Press, 1962). for a quick bird's eye view of the two traditions, it will be very useful. it will be useful particularly for those who cannot find time enough to read my thicker books on comparative philosophy."

  43. ———. 1955. "Idealisms: Eastern and Western." Philosophy East and West no. 5:211-234.

    "This is a comparison of Western and Eastern (including the Chinese) idealistic thought in its growth. It gives in a short space a summary of the similarities and differences."

  44. ———. 1957. "Being, Existence, Reality, and Truth." Philosophy East and West no. 17:291-315.

    "This paper which attempted to clarify the meanings of the four words which are still being used confusingly in both the same and different senses. Their meanings coincide, but also differ; that is, there is overlapping both in meaning and usage. Incidentally, the paper brings in also the Indian meanings and usages, which also have similar difficulties. In their usage the ontological, the cosmological, the epistemological and logical, and even the artistic (imitative art) meanings are mixed up. The intent is to raise the question: to what or to which are all these meanings moored or to be moored?"

  45. ———. 1962. Introduction to Comparative Philosophy. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

    Reprinted in 1997: Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.

    Contents: Preface V; General introduction 3; 1. Western philosophy and the struggle for the liberation of the outward 13; 2. Chinese philosophy and human mindfulness 93, 3. Indian philosophy and explication of inwardness 169; 4. Comparisons and reflections 249; Appendixes 337; Chronological table 339; Glossary of Indian and Chinese terms 352; Index 357.

  46. Rosan, Laurence J. 1952. "A Key to Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 2 (1):56-65.

  47. ———. 1961. "Are Comparisons between the East and the West Fruitful for Comparative Philosophy? (Comment and Discussion)." Philosophy East and West no. 11 (4):239-243.

  48. Santangelo, Paolo. 1993. "Italian Studies on Far Eastern Thought in Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy East and West no. 43 (3):573-581.

  49. Scharfstein, Ben-Ami. 1998. A Comparative History of World Philosophy: From the Upanishads to Kant. Albany: State University of New York Press.

    Contents: Preface XI; Acknowledgments XIII; Chapter 1. The three philosophical traditions 1; Chapter 2. The beginnings of metaphysical philosophy Uddalaka, Yajnavalkya, Heraclitus, Parmenides 55; Chapter 3. The beginnings of moral philosophy Confucius/Mencius, the Buddha, Socrates 79;

    Chapter 4. Early logical relativism, skepticism, and absolutism Mahavira, Chuang-tzu, Protagoras, Gorgias, Plato 113; Chapter 5. Early rational Synthesis Hsün-tzu, Aristotle 145; Chapter 6. Early varieties of atomism Democritus/Epicurus/Lucretius, "Gautama"' and Nameless Buddhists 171; Chapter 7. Hierarchical idealism Plotinus/Proclus, Bhartrhari 205; Chapter 8. Developed skepticism Sextus Empiricus, Nagarjuna, Jayarashi, Shriharsha 233; Chapter 9. Religio-philosophical synthesis U]dayana, Hsi, Avicenna, Mairnonides, Aquinas 275; Chapter 10. Logic-sensitized, methodological metaphysics Gangesha, Descartes, Leibniz 329; Chapter 11. Immanent-transcendent holism Shankara, Spinoza 367, Chapter 12. Perceptual analysis, realistic and idealistic Asanga/Vasuhandu, Locke, Berkeley, Hume 407; Chapter 13. Fideistic neo-skepticism Dignaga/Dhamakirti, Kant 467; Afterword 517; Notes 531; Bibliography 655; Note on the Author 659; Index 661.

    From the Preface: "Because I hope that newcomers to the history of philosophy will be among the readers of this hook, I have taken care to explain whatever I think they need to know. The book begins with the reasons for studying philosophy comparatively and with the difficulties raised by such study, and it ends with a view of philosophy that is personal but that rests on all of the preceding discussion The philosophers dealt with represent certain attitudes. schools. and traditions, but they are remembered most interestingly and accurately as individuals. So even though I have had to omit a great deal and make schematic summaries, I have in each instance tried to suggest the philosopher's style, density, and order of thought. In its later chapters the book tends to grow more difficult and elaborate, like the philosophies it deals with; but the early chapters prepare for the later ones. and, whatever the difficulty, I have always wittiest as simply and clearly as I can.

    To avoid making a long book forbiddingly longer, I have limited not only the number of philosophers dealt with but also the range of thought by which each of them is represented Plato. for example, is limited to his theory of Ideas and Kant (except in the later discussion) to his Critique of Pure Reason. In keeping with the needs of a particular comparison. I have sometimes drawn a broad sketch and sometimes entered into details. When it has seemed natural. I have shared my own views with the reader-there is no good reason to pretend that I am a neutral, disembodied voice. But however I judge each philosopher's thought, I have committed myself to expound it with a minimum of bias." p. XI.

  50. Sheldon, Wilmon H. 1956. "What Can Western Philosophy Contribute to Eastern?" Philosophy East and West no. 5:291-304.

  51. Smid, Robert W. 2009. Methodologies of Comparative Philosophy. The Pragmatist and Process Traditions. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  52. Smith, Huston. 1980. "Western and Comparative Perspectives on Truth." Philosophy East and West no. 30 (4):425-437.

  53. Solomon, Robert C., and Higgins, Kathleen M., eds. 2003. From Africa to Zen. An Invitation to World Philosophy. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Second expanded edition (First edition 1993).

  54. Sprung, Mervyn, ed. 1978. The Question of Being. East-West Perspectives. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

    Each chapter in this book (except the first) originated at a symposium arranged by the philosophy department of Brock University, St. Catherines, Ontario.

    Contents: Mervyn Sprung: The Question of Being as comparative philosophy 1; Some Western Perspectives: Joseph Owens: Being in early Western tradition 17; Charles H. Kahn: Linguistic relativism and the Greek project of ontology 31; Hans Georg Gadamer: Plato and Heidegger 45; Zygmunt Adamczewski: Questions in Heidegger's thought about Being 55; Robert C. Schaff: Heidegger's path of thinking and the Way of Meditation in the early Upanisads 67; Some eastern perspectives: Wilhelm Halbfass: On Being and What There Is: Indian perspectives on the Question of Being 95; J. G. Arapura: Some special characteristics of Sat (Being) in Advaita Vedanta 111; Mervyn Sprung: Being and the Middle Way 127; Jindra Nath Mohanty: Some aspects of Indian thinking on Being 141; Index 159-161.

  55. Stepaniants, Marietta Tigranovna. 2002. Introduction to Eastern Thought. Walnut Creek: Alta Mira Press.

    Edited by James Behuniak. Translated from the Russian by Rommela Kohanovskaya.

    Contents: Foreword by Eliot Deutsch XI; Preface XIII;

    Part 1. Interpretive essays.

    1. The birth of philosophy 3; 2. The Universe: its origin and structure 11; 3. Human nature 35; 4. In search of the truth 63; 5. Tradition and modernity 87;

    Part 2. Primary sources.

    6. Indian tradition 107, 7. Chinese tradition 158; 8. Islamic tradition 233; Index 285; About the Author 293.

  56. Vroom, Hendrik M., ed. 1989. Religions and Truth. Philosophical Reflections and Perspectives. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

  57. White, David. 1956. "Translation and Oriental Philosophy. An Introductory Study." Philosophy East and West no. 6 (3):247-255.

  58. Zon, Desheng. 2011. "A New Framework for Comparative Study of Philosophy." Dao.A Journal in Comparative Philosophy no. 9:445-459.

    "The aim of this essay is to outline a conceptual framework for a type of philosophy (or approach to philosophy) to be herein called "non-sentential philosophy." Although I will primarily concern myself with the conceptual coherence of the framework in this essay, illustrations will be provided to show that the notion has rich implications for comparative studies. In particular, I believe this theoretical framework will be of interest to those looking for a way to capture the differences between certain non-Western philosophical traditions -- such as Chinese philosophy -- and Western philosophy, a tradition in which the sentential approach is dominant."


Comparative Philosophy: Non-Western Logic and Ontology"

Index of the Section "Bibliographical Study Guides"